For many years the dominant scientific views rejected the benefits of practicing insight, based on the assumption that individuals, when reasoning, should keep consistency and avoid paradoxes at any cost. There was not much room for multiplicity when dealing with organizational decision making.  As the physicist David Bohm puts on “the modern worldview is based on Western science which, in terms of its goals of prediction, control, and generation of manipulative technologies, is amazingly successful... Nevertheless, it is an artifact of Western culture and it does have its limitations. The core of the current challenge to the scientific worldview can be taken to be consciousness”.

Actually any assessment of complex problems we face is preceded by unaware assumptions; two of them are the boundaries for the nature of phenomena that are relevant, and for the distinction between subject and object of study. When dealing with public problems these boundaries are not crisp anymore. This poses interesting promising research themes as the complementarity between external regulation and self regulation in public sectors. Metacognition is a property of complex living systems that can play a role as an important value to be pursued in public management.

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